Pre – implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) or Pre-implantation Genetic Testing (PGT) or PGS:
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a procedure used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to select embryos free of chromosomal abnormalities and specific genetic disorders for transfer to the uterus. PGD or PGT improves the likelihood of a successful pregnancy and birth for two distinctly different groups of patients; couples with infertility related to recurrent miscarriage or unsuccessful IVF cycles and couples who are at risk for passing on an inherited genetic disease to their offspring.
PGT or PGD technology reduces the potential for adverse pregnancy outcomes for couples ‘at risk’ by testing the embryos for certain genetic abnormalities before they are chosen for transfer.
Genetic testing or diagnosis on pre-implantation embryos may be indicated for patients who are at risk for genetic disorders such as Thalassemia and for patients with infertility related to chromosomal abnormalities such as recurrent pregnancy loss or repeated unsuccessful IVF or for gender (sex) selection (to choose boys or girls).
Pre-implantation genetic testing may be recommended by your physician when there is a possibility, indicated by your medical history or advanced maternal age, which could affect your embryos by a genetic disease. PGD can only be performed during an IVF cycle where eggs and sperm, united in the laboratory, then develop into embryos. On the 3rd day or 5th day a biopsy is done on each embryo to make a chromosomal study and after the testing results on day 5, only the normal embryos would be selected for embryo transfer, reducing the possibility of miscarriage or birth defects.
We can also use PGD for gender selection. We choose the required embryos upon their sex, boys or girls before doing the embryo transfer for family planning. We can freeze the healthy embryos that were not chosen for the transfer.