Birth Control by Intra Uterine Device (IUD)

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Birth Control by Intra Uterine Device (IUD)
Intra Uterine Device or IUD: 
Is a Small, "T-shaped" device inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
It is safe, effective, and long lasting. It has to be inserted by a doctor.
IUDs are small, "T-shaped" devices made of flexible plastic. A doctor inserts an IUD into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy. They are effective from 5 years to 10 years. An IUD has 99% effectiveness to prevent pregnancy.
There are two types of birth control IUD available - Copper and Hormonal.
Both the copper and hormonal IUDs work mainly by affecting the way the sperm moves so they can't join with the egg. If the sperm cannot join the egg, pregnancy cannot happen.


Copper IUD:
The copper IUD works by releasing copper ions into your cervix. No hormones here. Copper makes your uterus a hostile environment for sperm for up to 10 years. They work by damaging sperm and disrupting their motility so they are unable to join the egg. Specifically, copper acts as a spermicide within the uterus by increasing levels of copper ions, prostaglandins, and white blood cells within the uterine and tubal fluids. The increased copper ions in the cervical mucus inhibit the sperm's motility and viability, preventing sperm from traveling through the cervical mucus, or destroying it as it passes through. 
Hormonal IUD:
Hormonal IUDs release a small amount of progestin continuously. The progestin released by hormonal IUDs primarily acts locally. They may prevent the egg from leaving the ovary. Pregnancy cannot happen if there is no egg to join with sperm. The primary mechanism of action is making the inside of the uterus hostile for sperm.  
Hormonal IUDs release the progestin levonorgestrel and prevent pregnancy by:
Thickening your cervical mucus so the sperm can’t reach the egg. The mucus blocks sperm and keeps it from joining with an egg.
Making your uterus a hostile environment for sperm and eggs, impairing any chance of implantation by inhibiting the sperm’s ability to swim toward the egg.
Making the endometrial lining of the uterus thinner, impairing implantation and also giving you lighter periods (or sometimes no period at all). As a result, they are used to treat menorrhagia (heavy menses), once pathologic causes of menorrhagia (such as uterine polyps) have been ruled out.
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